Sweden’s commitment to combat climate change and achieve net-zero emissions has strongly underlined sustainable transport and electrification. The country recognizes that urgent action is needed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector as transportation volumes increase.

Sweden achieved a groundbreaking milestone in 2016, becoming the first country to inaugurate a public electric road. Located outside Sandviken and Gävle, the electric road employs overhead lines to power freight trucks while they are in motion. 

The success of this initiative prompted the launch of the eRoadArlanda project near Arlanda Airport. The eRoadArlanda focused on gaining insights and knowledge about electric roads through extensive testing.

Even so, Sweden’s dedication to electric mobility extends beyond infrastructure development. The nation’s vehicle manufacturers have emerged as pioneers in producing new electric and sustainable vehicles. Electric or hybrid electric cars have been present in the Swedish market for decades. Their prevalence only continues to grow as years pass by. 

In addition to electric cars, the country is experimenting with electric or hybrid buses and freight trucks. One example of these electric buses is the ElectriCity project in Gothenburg. This collaborative initiative aims to reduce climate impact and noise pollution while enhancing local air quality through electric and hybrid buses.

Adopting electrification in freight transport has introduced various advantages, including night-time deliveries with quiet and electric vehicles. Sweden is exploring other technological solutions like geofencing to promote electric driving in designated areas as well.

Despite the progress, the expansion of electric vehicles brings forth both possibilities and challenges. One such challenge involves developing charging infrastructure to address the limited driving range of electric cars. Implementing charging stations in residential areas, apartment complexes, and along roads is imperative to support the growing number of electric vehicles.

At the forefront of sustainable initiatives, Sweden’s local decision-makers and businesses are also united in their efforts to curb greenhouse gas emissions. Collaborative electrification projects like eRoadArlanda and Elväg E16 serve as inspiring examples. These endeavors not only reduce greenhouse gas emissions but also contribute to establishing a sustainable society.

Targets and Deadlines for Fossil-Free Transport 

Sweden has set ambitious goals to become one of the world’s leading fossil-free welfare countries by 2045. The fossil-free goal also includes having a fossil-independent vehicle fleet by 2030. 

To achieve these visions, Sweden has developed a roadmap that outlines a clear transition plan for its transport sector. One of the key components of this roadmap is the phasing out of fossil fuels in aviation and shipping by 2045.

Sweden’s efforts in achieving a fossil-free transport sector have garnered widespread support from various stakeholders. The country has brought together companies in the transport industry to collaboratively determine their contributions towards attaining the national climate target of net zero emissions by 2045. This united approach fosters cooperation and ensures that the private sector plays an active role in the transition.

In line with its roadmap, specific regions within Sweden are actively pioneering solutions for fossil-free transport. Regions like Småland and Östergötland are taking the lead by supplying different types of biofuels and actively promoting the adoption of electric vehicles. These regional initiatives showcase Sweden’s commitment to practical implementations and serve as models for other parts of the country to follow.

Europe’s Targets

Building on Sweden’s efforts, the European Union (EU) has also steadfastly committed to combating climate change and promoting sustainable practices. The EU has set targets to achieve fossil fuel-free transport by 2050. With an extra five years compared to Sweden’s fossil-free goal, this vision is among the EU’s broader goals of achieving climate neutrality.

As transport significantly contributes to greenhouse gas emissions, the EU considers transitioning to zero-emission energy sources as vital. EU’s strategy aims to phase out combustion engine cars and trucks in the 2030s. The strategy’s long-term goal is to eliminate fossil fuel use in the transport sector. 

The EU plans to employ a mix of batteries and hydrogen for cars, trucks, and ships to achieve their fossil-free transport goal. The EU intends to incorporate synthetic fuels for planes and other aerial transports. 

Notably, the European Parliament’s environment committee approved a proposal to effectively ban the sale of new petrol and diesel cars by 2035. Later, EU countries ratified this ban, which is seen as a historic step. While it poses significant challenges for automakers, it aligns with the broader aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and promoting electric cars.

The European Commission aims for a 90 percent reduction in CO2 emissions from heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) by 2050 compared to 1990 levels in all transport modes. For the HDV sector to comply with this target, a 98 percent reduction in CO2 emissions by 2050 relative to 2019 is required. 

However, the currently adopted HDV CO2 standard falls short, resulting in an 8 percent increase in emissions across the fleet by 2050 compared to 2019 levels. Similarly, the milestones set by the Commission’s sustainable and smart mobility strategy achieve only a 78 percent reduction over the same period. The HDVs have failed to deliver the necessary deep decarbonization cuts.

HDV manufacturers have announced a transition to zero-emission vehicles to align with the European Climate Law and meet the long-term climate commitment. This would lead to a 96 percent reduction in emissions by 2050 compared to 2019. However, these manufacturer goals must be enshrined into binding regulations to become a reality.

To make these manufacturer-led goals achievable, the EU should consider increasing the target established in the HDV CO2 standard and introducing more aggressive reduction targets. For instance, increasing the required reduction to 60 percent by 2030, 90 percent by 2035, and 100 percent by 2040 would be essential. 

Notably, all major HDV manufacturers in the EU have pledged to have all their vehicle sales be fossil-free by 2040. These pledges represent a significant commitment to decarbonizing the road transport sector.

Both the EU and Sweden share ambitious targets for transitioning to fossil-free transport to combat climate change. The EU’s focus is on achieving climate neutrality by 2050, while Sweden aims to become one of the first fossil-free welfare countries by 2045. 

Both countries have developed clear roadmaps and initiatives for zero-emission transport solutions, but meeting these targets requires strong regulations and commitment from stakeholders in the transport sector. Sweden’s leadership sets an example on the national level and aligns with the broader European efforts.

Future-Proofing Our Routes

Sweden’s commitment to a fossil-free future has become a driving force in the country’s climate policy discourse and practice. The Swedish government recognizes the power of imagination and storytelling in gaining legitimacy for the transition to a fossil-free society. 

By envisioning itself as the world’s first fossil-free welfare nation by 2045, Sweden has set a specific and ambitious goal at the heart of its climate strategy. This vision is not meant to be a competitive signal among nations but rather a clarion call for collective action and inspiration.

To achieve this ambitious goal, Sweden acknowledges the need for a profound reconfiguration of social systems. In 2015, the government initiated Fossil Free Sweden, an initiative that brings together various non-state actors to address the climate crisis collaboratively. This platform has facilitated the development of roadmaps that engage companies in the transport sector. It has also enabled said companies to identify common challenges and determine how they will contribute to reaching the national climate target of net-zero emissions by 2045.

One of the key aspects of Sweden’s fossil-free regulations is the aim to create a fossil-independent transport sector by 2030. This involves reducing greenhouse gas emissions from transportation by 70 percent between 2010 and 2030, focusing on transitioning away from fossil fuels and embracing renewable energy sources. To achieve a fossil-independent vehicle fleet by 2030, Sweden is actively promoting the use of electric vehicles and other low-emission transportation alternatives while phasing out the use of fossil fuels in vehicles.

The shipping industry is not left behind in Sweden’s transition efforts. The Swedish Shipowners’ Association has put forth plans to phase out the use of fossil fuels in shipping by 2045. This initiative aligns with the broader goal of transforming Sweden into a fossil-free welfare country. The emphasis is on adopting cleaner and more sustainable fuels for the maritime sector.

Aviation is another critical area of focus for Sweden’s fossil-free ambitions. The country aims to make both domestic and foreign flights from Swedish airports fossil-free by 2045. This entails exploring alternative fuels and technologies, such as sustainable aviation fuels and electric aircraft, to reduce the environmental impact of air travel.

Sweden’s approach to achieving a fossil-free future goes beyond regulations; it involves fostering partnerships and collaborations between the public and private sectors. The roadmaps developed through Fossil Free Sweden facilitate dialogue and cooperation among various industries, including transportation and logistics, to drive the transition away from fossil fuels.

Political Conundrum

Sweden is grappling with a complex political conundrum when it comes to reducing emissions from car traffic. On one hand, the government has set ambitious targets to achieve a fossil-independent transport sector by 2030, aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from transportation by 70 percent between 2010 and 2030. This involves transitioning away from fossil fuels and promoting renewable energy sources for transportation, aligning with the broader goal of becoming a fossil-free welfare nation by 2045.

However, despite these lofty ambitions, the Swedish government has lowered its fossil fuel reduction targets, which raises concerns about achieving its 2030 climate goals. This decision comes from a desire to ensure that efforts to reduce emissions from car traffic do not adversely impact the economy, according to the ruling coalition and the Sweden Democrats. Balancing environmental goals with economic considerations poses challenges for policymakers in designing effective and acceptable measures to tackle car emissions.

Adding to the complexity, Swedish cities are eager to limit car traffic as part of reducing emissions and contributing to the nation’s climate targets. However, these cities face obstacles from the state, which is not providing sufficient funding and support for these initiatives. 

While cities are taking action to reduce car traffic, the state’s slower approach to providing resources hampers their efforts to make substantial progress. This lack of alignment between national and local efforts creates a dilemma in addressing the pressing issue of car-related emissions.

Sweden’s transport system heavily relies on car usage, which contributes to high emissions from road transport. To achieve the country’s net-zero emissions target, decarbonizing the transport sector is crucial. However, current policies indicate a projected increase in transport emissions, highlighting the urgency of finding effective solutions to reverse this trend.

The broader European context also plays a role in Sweden’s efforts to reduce emissions from car traffic. In June 2022, EU countries approved climate laws that include a ban on fossil fuel cars by 2035. While this move is seen as a historic step and aligns with the EU’s goal of drastically reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector and promoting electric cars, it presents a significant challenge for automakers, particularly in countries like Germany, where sales of fossil-fuel-powered vehicles have been prevalent.

New Regulations

Sweden has taken significant steps to regulate and monitor CO2 emissions in industries, transport, and buildings to align with its goal of achieving net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2045. The regulations are in line with the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), which initially covered emissions from combustion installations and energy-intensive industries like mineral oil refineries.

Greenhouse gas emissions in Sweden emanate from various sectors, including transport, buildings (especially heating), and services. To effectively tackle these emissions, Sweden has implemented reporting requirements for CO2 emissions in industries, transport, and buildings under Regulation (EU) 2018/1999 of the European Parliament.

To keep track of progress towards its climate goals, Sweden has set milestone targets for territorial emissions in the sectors covered by the EU’s Effort Sharing Regulation. These targets are established for 2020, 2030, and 2040, providing a roadmap for gradual emission reductions in these sectors over time.

The Effort Sharing Regulation is essential to Sweden’s approach to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. It addresses emissions from sectors not included in the EU ETS, such as transport, buildings, agriculture, and waste. The regulation sets binding national targets for each member state to reduce emissions in these sectors. For Sweden, this means taking concrete actions to curb emissions from transportation, heating in buildings, and other relevant sources.

The implementation timeline for these reporting requirements and emission reduction targets may vary depending on the sector and the specific regulations involved. However, Sweden’s overarching goal is to achieve net-zero emissions by 2045, and the milestones set for 2020, 2030, and 2040 serve as critical checkpoints to gauge the country’s progress toward this ambitious target.

By closely monitoring and reporting CO2 emissions in industries, transport, and buildings, Sweden aims to meet its climate commitments and set an example for other countries in the European Union. These regulations and milestones reflect Sweden’s commitment to addressing climate change through comprehensive and inclusive efforts encompassing various sectors and industries. As the country continues to make strides in reducing its carbon footprint, these regulations play a crucial role in driving the transition toward a sustainable and carbon-neutral future.

Sweden is determined to become one of the world’s first fossil fuel-free welfare nations. It has set a goal to achieve 100 percent fossil-free electricity production by 2045, supported by a surplus of renewable sources. The country has developed roadmaps for a fossil-free future, fostering public-private partnerships to drive the transition. 

Regulations on Charging Stations

In Sweden and Norway, government support and regulations are driving the successful adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) and their associated charging infrastructure. These regulations are essential for ensuring the compliant and safe installation of EV charging points.

Starting from the planning, EU directives mandate that public charging points in both countries adhere to Mode 3 standards and include at least one Type-2 socket for alternating current charging. Home chargers within the EU can have either Type-1 or Type-2 sockets. 

EU regulations dictate that charging point installations must be carried out by registered electricians in both countries due to their complexity. Electricians need specialized education and training for EV charger installations. 

CE marking is essential to show adherence to European safety standards. Equipment instructions must be in the local language. Norway’s DSB (the Directorate for Civil Protection) approves and registers electricians for EV installations. Charging stations must adhere to safety regulations and are preferably Mode 3 chargers due to their security, flexibility, and speed.

In Sweden, installers hold legal responsibility for regularly checking EV charger safety under the Electrical Safety Act. Similar maintenance requirements exist in Norway to ensure cables, connectors, and charging stations are well-maintained, erosion-free, and adhere to safety regulations.

Overall, these regulations ensure the safety, reliability, and adherence to standards for EV charging point installations in Sweden and Norway. While the guidelines are relatively straightforward, seeking expert advice can provide clarity and ensure compliance with the rules.

In 2019, transportation contributed to approximately 25 percent of the total CO2 emissions within the EU. Road transportation accounted for 71.7 percent of these emissions, as reported by the European Environment Agency. 

The recently introduced regulations concerning alternative fuel infrastructure are a crucial component of the “Fit for 55 in 2030 package.” This package outlines the EU’s comprehensive strategy to curtail greenhouse gas emissions by a minimum of 55 percent by 2030, in alignment with the European Climate Law, which references 1990 levels as the benchmark.

Sweden’s 2030 strategy includes a 70 percent emissions reduction in the transport sector, aiming for a fossil-independent transport system. These efforts demonstrate Sweden’s commitment to combining emissions reductions with economic growth and welfare improvements.

Case Studies: Gothenburg, Umea, and Nordmaling

The city of Gothenburg, Umeå, and Nordmaling are at the forefront of Sweden’s sustainability efforts. 

Gothenburg is a major port city known for its sustainable practices and green initiatives. Umeå, a university town, is committed to achieving net-zero emissions by 2050 and is actively engaging citizens in low-carbon lifestyles. 

Lastly, the picturesque municipality of Nordmaling is also making strides in reducing its carbon footprint and promoting eco-friendly living. These municipalities exemplify Sweden’s dedication to creating a sustainable and environmentally conscious future.


The city of Gothenburg, like many urban centers worldwide, faces the pressing challenge of curbing air pollution and mitigating the impacts of climate change. One of the crucial international agreements addressing these issues is the Gothenburg Protocol, established in 1999. 

While primarily targeting other air pollutants, the protocol indirectly reduces CO2 emissions by limiting harmful substances exacerbating climate change. The Gothenburg Protocol also seeks to regulate emissions of air pollutants that have far-reaching implications for public health and the environment. 

Key targeted pollutants include sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ammonia, and volatile organic compounds. The protocol aims to improve air quality and mitigate adverse effects on ecosystems and human health by reducing these emissions.

By 2030, the protocol aims to achieve 40 to 45 percent reductions in emissions of these harmful substances. While the protocol does not directly address CO2 emissions, reducing other air pollutants indirectly contributes to climate change mitigation efforts.

The European Union has embraced the Gothenburg Protocol amendment, which aligns EU member states with emission reduction targets for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia. Collaborative efforts within the EU are vital for achieving the collective goals of air pollution reduction and climate change mitigation.


Umeå has historically had lower CO2 emissions than the national average. However, challenges remain, especially in the transport sector, where fossil fuels are extensively used.  Implementing a low-emission zone requires effective communication and collaboration to change behaviors. Industrial emissions are also a concern that demands innovative solutions and cooperation between industries and local authorities.

On the bright side, Umeå’s involvement in research projects offers insights and strategies to reduce emissions. The city’s commitment to achieving net-zero carbon emissions by 2050 provides a clear roadmap and motivates residents, businesses, and policymakers to work together toward a common goal. Exploring collaboration with neighboring municipalities creates opportunities to share best practices and enhance efficiency in emission reduction efforts.

While Umeå is implementing a low-emission zone to control vehicle emissions, the successful execution and enforcement of such policies may face challenges. Ensuring compliance and creating a behavioral shift among residents and businesses may require robust communication, public engagement, and collaboration with relevant stakeholders.


In Nordmaling, sustainability efforts are actively pursued to promote a greener, more eco-friendly community. A recent lecture on sustainability and forestry, delivered by Micael Jonsson from Umeå University, highlights the municipality’s commitment to educating its residents on environmental issues. Moreover, Nordmaling stands as one of Sweden’s municipalities actively working with sustainability goals, ensuring a localized approach to addressing climate challenges.

The municipality’s dedication to sustainable construction is evident through the use of cast-in-situ concrete in a building project, maximizing both environmental benefits and financial viability. Local businesses, such as Humlebäck Keramik & Möbelsnickeri, take responsibility for environmental matters by implementing sustainable production practices to minimize their ecological footprint.

In the pursuit of quality and sustainability, Olofsfors, a Nordmaling-based company, continually refines its processes to deliver high-quality products while minimizing natural resource consumption. These initiatives collectively contribute to Nordmaling’s ongoing efforts to create a more sustainable and environmentally conscious community.

Nimbnet and Its Role In Assisting Municipalities

As of the 31st of May 2023, the Swedish government has implemented a tax incentive to drive the adoption of electric vehicles and bolster the development of charging infrastructure. This policy change sets the stage for a rapid shift towards electric mobility, and Nimbnet is at the forefront of this transformation.

Nimbnet, a dynamic startup in the electric vehicle (EV) charging industry, is taking significant strides to build a sustainable future for transportation. With a focus on creating accessible and eco-friendly charging solutions, Nimbnet aims to play a pivotal role in supporting the transition to electric vehicles in Sweden.

Nimbnet specializes in designing, implementing, and managing electric vehicle (EV) charging networks. Its goal includes supporting the transition to sustainable and electric mobility. 

One of Nimbnet’s key objectives is to build charging stations for both trucks and personal vehicles, catering to the diverse needs of the EV market. By collaborating with Virta, an established charging network, Nimbnet seeks to streamline the charging process. As part of its commitment to sustainability, Nimbnet plans to integrate solar panels into its charging stations, tapping into renewable energy sources to power electric vehicles. 

Nimbnet’s charging solutions encompass both public and private charging options, catering to the needs of businesses and individuals alike, even municipalities. With a strong commitment to environmental sustainability and reducing carbon emissions, Nimbnet is well-positioned to assist municipalities in fulfilling the new CO2 emission regulations.

Moreover, Nimbnet’s charging stations will feature dynamic pricing based on fluctuations in the electricity grid’s usage when power becomes a limiting factor. This forward-thinking approach ensures that EV owners can benefit from cost-effective charging during times of abundant energy supply while encouraging responsible energy consumption during peak periods.

In addition to its technical proficiency, Nimbnet also offers management services. The company provides real-time monitoring, maintenance, and customer support for its charging infrastructure, ensuring reliable and efficient operations. This proactive approach minimizes downtime and maximizes the overall efficiency of the charging network.

Additionally, Nimbnet is dedicated to promoting accessibility, as its stations will be designed to accommodate wheelchair users, fostering inclusivity in the EV charging ecosystem. Embracing a collaborative spirit, Nimbnet is open to partnerships with other companies and municipalities, recognizing the collective effort required to build a robust and widespread charging infrastructure. 

Our wide array of solutions and versatility allows municipalities to create an inclusive and accessible EV charging network, promoting a seamless transition to electric mobility for all citizens. By strategically deploying charging stations in key locations, Nimbnet helps facilitate widespread EV adoption, encouraging more residents to switch to electric vehicles.

By partnering with Nimbnet, municipalities can benefit from a reliable and scalable charging infrastructure that aligns with the new CO2 emission regulations. Nimbnet’s expertise contributes to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and helps build a cleaner and more sustainable future for communities.

On a more recent note, in alignment with the Swedish Energy Agency’s initiative, Nimbnet is currently preparing to submit applications for multiple sites within the upcoming deadline.  In 2022, the program funded 140 electric charging and 12 hydrogen stations (totaling 1.4 billion SEK). 

This ongoing commitment to funding will extend into 2023 with varied focuses, including fast-charging infrastructure for heavy vehicles. Additional calls are planned for 2023-2024 with different objectives. Nimbnet is keen to invite potential collaborators to join this endeavor together, fostering a collaborative approach to contribute significantly to the growth and enhancement of sustainable transportation infrastructure in the region.